but we are actually all winds
ever more than before
even ever more than before 
gaining 
speeding 
booming
towards future 
speeding
and redeeming laughters
and happiest laughters
Start page JUMO | Code for America | good.is |
“If you want to free a society, just give them internet access. Because people, the young guys, you know, are all going to go out and see biased media, see the truth about other nations and their own nation and they’re going to be able to contribute and collaborate together.”
▸ [China - Arms Sales to Africa: Ivory Coast, Congo, Sudan, Somalia] China’s arms exports flooding sub-Saharan Africa, WashingtonPost

UNITED NATIONS — China’s arms exports have surged over the past decade, flooding sub-Saharan Africa with a new source of cheap assault rifles and ammunition and exposing Beijing to international scrutiny as its lethal wares wind up in conflict zones in violation of U.N. sanctions.

Weapons from China have surfaced in a string of U.N. investigations in war zones stretching from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to Ivory Coast, Somalia and Sudan. China is by no means alone in supplying the arms that help fuel African conflicts, and there is no proof that China or its arms exporters have intentionally violated U.N. embargoes in any of those countries.

But China has stood apart from other major arms exporters, including Russia, for its assertive challenge to U.N. authority, routinely refusing to cooperate with U.N. arms experts and flexing its diplomatic muscle to protect its allies and curtail investigations that may shed light on its own secretive arms industry.

The stance highlights the tensions between China’s responsibilities as a global power and its interests in exploiting new markets. It has also raised questions about whether Chinese diplomats have a grip on the reach of the country’s influence in the arms industry beyond its borders.

Beijing has responded to the disclosures not by enforcing regulations at home but by using its clout within the Security Council to claw back the powers of independent U.N. arms investigators. Those efforts have helped undercut the independence of U.N. panels that track arms trading with Iran and North Korea.

“This is really a case of unbridled capitalism, and I think the Chinese government is not even always aware of what these companies are doing,” said David Albright, president of the Institute for Science and International Security, which has been tracking Iran’s and North Korea’s procurement of nuclear technology from Chinese companies. When the Chinese are “confronted with evidence,” Albright said, “they respond very defensively and legalistically.”

China has blocked the release of embarrassing U.N. revelations of illicit arms transfers, stopped the reappointment of an arms expert who uncovered Chinese weapons and sought to restrict the budget to fund investigations. It has also consistently refused to allow U.N. investigators to trace the origin of Chinese weapons discovered in war zones.

[Sources: SIPRI Arms Transfers, Embargoes databases. The Washington Post. Published on August 25, 2012, 10:05 p.m.]



Source: Washington Post

Aug 31, 2012, 1:45pm  4 notes      

▸ [Back in 2009, How BBC Portrayed Somali Sufi Groups' rage against Al Shabab's violence] Mohamed Mohamed, BBC Somali Service

Since they began to capture large swathes of southern Somalia, radical Islamists have been undertaking a programme of destroying mosques and the graves of revered religious leaders from the Sufi branch of Islam.

The destruction of non-approved religious sites started last year when they began to knock down an old colonial era church in the town of Kismayo.

Most Somalis are Sufi Muslims, who do not share the strict Saudi Arabian-inspired Wahhabi interpretation of Islam with the hardline al-Shabab group.

They embrace music, dancing and meditation and are appalled at the desecration of the graves.

But al-Shabab sees things differently.

The group’s spokesman in the town of Kismayo, Sheikh Hassan Yaquub, told the BBC Somali Service that his movement considered that the memorials were being worshipped and that this was idolatry - banned by Islam.

"The destruction of graves is not something new: we target graves that are overdecorated and ones used for misleading people.

"We are not aiming at the sheikhs [religious leaders] and their standing in the society, but it is forbidden to make graves into shrines," Mr Yaquub said.

Grave are being desecrated wherever al-Shabab is in control.

The town of Brave is home to a number of minority groups.

Among them are the Sufi Bravenese, a Bantu group who speak a language unique to their town called Chimbalazi, similar to Swahili.

Many of the graves of their religious leaders have been attacked.

Graveyard caretakers have been arrested and told not to go back to work.

The disappointment and sadness of this community has reached beyond Somalia.

"The people of Brave feel the desecrations of graves are actions against humanity," said Mohamed Sheikh, a Bravenese community leader in Manchester in the north-west of England.

"The Islamists closed the mosques and said no-one could pray at the ones near graveyards - arguing that the prayers performed there could not be proper prayers and would amount to worshiping the graves themselves.

"These people [he avoids mentioning al-Shabab by name] cannot teach us about Islam. Islam reached Brave and all the coastal areas when the religion arrived in East Africa 1,250 to 1,300 years ago.

"The living person can at least defend himself, but the dead cannot. The spirits of the dead deserve respect. Even when we walk near graves we walk slowly, because while the bodies are dead, the spirit is not. Destroying graves is despicable."

There is evidence that the anger is stirring the usually peaceful Sufis to take up arms and fight back against al-Shabab.

The umbrella group Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jama (Sufi Sects in Somalia) has condemned the actions of what they call the ideology of modern Wahhabism and the desecrations of graves.

They see Wahhabism as foreign and ultimately un-Islamic.

Wahhabism is a branch of Sunni Islam dominant in Saudi Arabia.

It preaches a more literal interpretation of Islam and condemns innovations in Islam and rituals.

It is at the opposite end of the spectrum of Islam to Sufism.

"These radical groups shed Muslim blood every day and they dig out and desecrate our graves. They are funded from outside and their Wahhabi ideology is foreign and must be dealt with," says the group’s spokesman Abdirasak Mohamed Al Ash’ari.

The group has now joined forces with the embattled government of President Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, a moderate Islamist, against al-Shabab.

Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jama now controls much of the Galgadud Region in Central Somalia after they defeated al-Shabab in a number of battles.

In one of their battles they managed to kill a senior al-Shabab leader.

By antagonising the Sufi groups, al-Shabab may have gone too far.

From 2009. Shouldn’t feel like something so old but - 

I wish I could have like 3 weeks entirely set aside for reading everything about pre-war Somalia. 



Source: BBC

Jul 10, 2012, 2:26pm  2 notes      

▸ Somalia: Preparation of 1st July celebrations goes in the capital Mogadishu

Mogadishu: Somali people inside the country and communities in the diaspora are greatly prepared to mark 1st July event that coincides the 52nd anniversary when southern regions took freedom from the colonial state of Italy and when the southern and northern regions joined having the Somali republic in 1960.

1st July is one of two great independent days that we are proud of and mark happily, very colorful occasions and celebrations are expected to take place in the Somali capital Mogadishu as well as south and central regions

The biggest celebration of this event is supposed to be held the Somali capital Mogadishu today now that the security forces are have tightened all spots assigned to this great event of 1st July, the independent day.

Colorful lights, the national blue flag with five stars and other beautiful slogans and boards are seen in the Mogadishu’s main roads as it is safe and in peace right now since Al-Qaeda linked group of Al-Shabab was removed from the capital last year.

1st July event comes as there are security progress, repairing and rebuilding in the capital Mogadishu while Somali diaspora are heavily returning to the country, in particular, Mogadishu city as well as well foreigners of different races come to Mogadishu.



Source: allvoices.com

Jun 30, 2012, 7:57pm  1 note      

▸ Somalia: Somaliland Keen On Independence At London Conference - AllAfrica.com

Leaders of Somalia and Somaliland is meeting in London:

The issue of independence will likely cause an interesting debate over whether or not the TFG (Transitional Federal Government) is willing to recognize Somaliland as sovereign nation.

The TFG have kept an open mind approach to the conference but political analysts say the lack of a solid position on Somaliland’s independence, could result in a failed conference.

Somaliland pulled out of the talks last month when TFG President, Sharif Sheikh Ahmed appointed two ministers from Puntland state to attend the conference. After protest from the Somaliland government the Puntland ministers did not attend the conference in London.

Somaliland and Puntland have hotly contested regions in northern Somalia which both lay claim to.



Jun 21, 2012, 9:43am  3 notes      

 
“It may be too early to talk about building resilience. “Resilience is an endurance test, and everyone’s endurance is lower this year,” said Brady. Across Somalia, around 2.5 million people still need aid, with 1.4 million displaced from their farms and homes.

Despite the challenges, Nur is optimistic. “No country is as resilient as Somalia. It existed for 21 years without a government, courts or military, and it is still functioning,” he said. “We can rise from the ashes. What we need is visionary leadership to take people out of this mess.”

A lot hinges on whether or not the weak, UN-backed transitional federal government, which is due to be replaced by a new administration by 20 August, can deliver credible change.

While some analysts talk cautiously of a “tipping point” in the battle against al-Shabaab, there are fears those involved in the tortuous political process may be less than eager to change the status quo – a war economy that has been lucrative for some in Somalia.”

June 19, 2012, 7:18pm  0 notes

▸ Somali tale of two cities as Mogadishu’s vulnerable miss out on progress.

Title aside - towards the end of article isn’t bad. I think. 

Somali tale of two cities as Mogadishu’s vulnerable miss out on progressSomalia’s capital is enjoying something of a boom after more than two decades of conflict and chaos, but many displaced Somalis are still living in camps and on the streets.

At Mogadishu’s port, battered trucks without headlights and windscreens are piled with sacks and tyres, and parked beside a ship from the Comoros islands. Workers clamber on to crooked cabs to strap orange tarpaulins over the loads.

The port is busy, says its deputy manager Ahmed Abdi Karie. Food, vehicles and construction materials are coming in, and leather and lemons are going out. “In the last five months, construction materials account for most [imports] after food,” he said.

Mogadishu is enjoying something of a boom after more than two decades of chaos following the fall of the dictator Mohamed Siad Barre in 1991. Feuding warlords made the city their playground before the rise of the Islamist insurgents of al-Shabaab around 2006.

Now, 10 months after the rebels were pushed out of the city by African Union Mission in Somalia (Amisom) forces, Mogadishu’s residents are rebuilding lives shattered by years of war and last year’s famine.

“Mogadishu is open for business,” said Kilian Kleinschmidt, the UN’s deputy humanitarian co-ordinator. Somalis are returning from abroad to invest, shops are opening and the property market is booming. New buildings painted in cheerful pastels are rising out of the rubble, car washes service SUVs, and people are staying out late to shop, work or sit in cafes.

But this is a tale of two cities. During last year’s drought and famine, hundreds of thousands of people poured into Mogadishu. Around 200,000 still live in flimsy shelters on rubbish-strewn wastelands.

More arrived last month when Amisom troops pushed out of Mogadishu and drove al-Shabaab from Afgoye, a riverside town around 20 miles away in a fertile region of banana plantations and orchards. Some of the estimated 400,000 people living rough by the side of the main road to Afgoye – many having fled earlier fighting in Mogadishu – came back to the camps in the city.

Kleinschmidt says malnutrition and mortality rates in Mogadishu have fallen since last year’s peaks, but are still unacceptably high. Rape and sexual violence are all too common in the camps. Mogadishu’s most vulnerable are easy prey for freelance militias, whom Kleinschmidt describes as “gatekeepers and mafias”.

The city’s mayor, Mohamed Ahmed Nur, is also concerned. “I have seen signs that militias want to carve the city into fiefdoms … these groups need an iron fist,” Nur said. A strong, professional police force is key.

Nur draws a distinction between these armed groups and the warlords, whom he describes as “irrelevant” now. “These people are freelance militias because they are not paid well … They are not strong.”

As attention turns to rebuilding Mogadishu, Kleinschmidt worries that the thousands of displaced may be left behind. “We are still at a critical emergency level in the centre of Mogadishu,” he said. “We are trying to give people access to basic security standards and make sure they don’t get left behind by the boom.”

As Amisom drives beyond Mogadishu, aid agencies are struggling to extend operations in a region where al-Shabaab still carries out suicide bombings and other deadly attacks. Security is a major problem.

At the Zona K camp in Mogadishu, a crowd of women berated a visiting aid official. “You come and do nothing,” the official muttered, quoting the women as he climbed back into the armoured carrier he had arrived in. Western aid organisations are also struggling to build relationships with new players from Muslim countries. Turkey is taking a lead in Somalia, building roads, clearing rubbish and operating hospitals, and winning international plaudits as it does so.

At the Egyptian-run Zamzam hospital, doctor Ahmed Hassan from Cairo is eager to show visitors how staff treat complex fractures and deformities with the Ilizarov apparatus, a complex mesh of steel rings and wire. The hospital, which is funded by the Arab Medical Union, has a dozen doctors and sees around 1,020 patients a week.

Nur wants to see more long-term foreign investment, not just aid, to deal with what he calls symptoms, like water-borne diseases. “It’s a market. The NGOs are doing business and no one wants to phase out their business,” he said, admitting that some sectors would need outside help. “I’m expecting the international community, particularly the UK and US, to invest in electricity, water and roads.”

Others say the most vulnerable are not yet able to survive without aid. The long rains have been below average, and although the UN says famine is unlikely, there is still the risk of food shortages.

“The knock-on effect of poor rains or locust infestations, which we are seeing more of this year, will have an impact on displacement,” said Justin Brady, head of the Somalia office for the UN’s Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs. As Amisom and its allies continue to pursue al-Shabaab into the south, there will also be more people on the move.

It may be too early to talk about building resilience. “Resilience is an endurance test, and everyone’s endurance is lower this year,” said Brady. Across Somalia, around 2.5 million people still need aid, with 1.4 million displaced from their farms and homes.

Despite the challenges, Nur is optimistic. “No country is as resilient as Somalia. It existed for 21 years without a government, courts or military, and it is still functioning,” he said. “We can rise from the ashes. What we need is visionary leadership to take people out of this mess.”

A lot hinges on whether or not the weak, UN-backed transitional federal government, which is due to be replaced by a new administration by 20 August, can deliver credible change.

While some analysts talk cautiously of a “tipping point” in the battle against al-Shabaab, there are fears those involved in the tortuous political process may be less than eager to change the status quo – a war economy that has been lucrative for some in Somalia.



Source: boocameonline.com

Jun 19, 2012, 7:16pm  0 notes      

soobaxblog:

Interested in finding out more about the Somali diaspora in the United States? Read their heartbreaking and hopeful stories collected by photographer Abdi Roble and writer Doug Rutledge. Abdi and Doug documented the lives of Somali immigrants in the United States in a book titled “The Somali Diaspora”. Their book traces, through photographs and essays, the journey of a family from the Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya to new lives in the United States.
The work takes readers from civil war to the culture shock, growing roots in the Somali community, learning English, finding work, and—in a remarkably short time—participating fully in American life. Read more.

soobaxblog:

Interested in finding out more about the Somali diaspora in the United States? Read their heartbreaking and hopeful stories collected by photographer Abdi Roble and writer Doug Rutledge. Abdi and Doug documented the lives of Somali immigrants in the United States in a book titled “The Somali Diaspora”. Their book traces, through photographs and essays, the journey of a family from the Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya to new lives in the United States.

The work takes readers from civil war to the culture shock, growing roots in the Somali community, learning English, finding work, and—in a remarkably short time—participating fully in American life. Read more.

Eritrean military deserters in Tel Aviv - then Eritrean regime behind Somalia’s al-Shabab - and roots in Eritrea-Ethiopia Rivalry?

I remember - one really really sweet, cutest Ethiopian girl insisting - when it comes to the issue of Eritrea -

'You know, Eritrea is part of Ethiopia. But they wanted to secede. Fine. Do it. Ethiopian people are generous. Go ahead. But they are still unhappy and bothering us and neighbors. So wrong headed. You know. Inferiority complex really turns people into babies. If we want to invade and punish Eritrea, we can squash them like a bug. But we aren't doing it. We want them to grow up. Patience, you know.” 

She was one of the sweetest, cutest person - through and through though :(

Human brains are just, so, weird. (Super-hyper autonomy in rationality and emotion - and being completely brainwashed - can coexist in such incoherent way!!!)

Studies of international relations need to start from this. Our study materials (humans) are deeply, deeply, shockingly, stunningly incoherent. (<Maybe)

While Eritrea has in the past been repeatedly accused of supporting Somalia’s Islamist militia Al Shabaab, a charge it strenuously denies, the current report catalogues Afewerki’s growing notoriety in the world of terrorism finance, and in particular the global web through which these funds are routed, with Kenya serving as a global transaction distribution hub. The report details the country’s activities in funding the terror group, following the money trail from its citizens in the diaspora in Europe and North America, through Dubai and the Eritrean embassy in Nairobi, and into the hands of Al Shabaab, all the while concealed in convoluted and opaque informal financial networks.

The enemy is this case is Eritrea’s former colonial master Ethiopia. For both these countries, Somalia is merely the theatre of a raging proxy war, an extension of their longstanding border dispute, with each side supporting various rival factions and administrations since 1998. Al Shabaab is thus propped up by Eritrea’s determination to keep Ethiopia “off-kilter and overstretched,” according to British journalist Michaela Wrong, writing in the Financial Times. Ms Wrong has written a bestselling book ‘I Didn’t Do It for You’ on the country’s struggle to free itself from various occupiers.

According to the report, Eritrea justifies its actions in Somalia by pointing to Ethiopia’s failure to implement the UN ruling of arbitration on the disputed border, and the continued presence of Ethiopian civilian officials and military forces on territory awarded to Eritrea. The UN Monitoring Group indicates that cash transfers to Al Shabaab are facilitated by a vast and complex informal economy through which senior officials of the Eritrean government and ruling People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) collect and control hundreds of millions of dollars each year in unofficial revenues, largely from taxation of Eritreans in the diaspora, and private business arrangements involving PFDJ-run companies or business partnerships abroad.

The report highlights that essentially, Eritrea maintains two parallel economies: A formal economic system presumably managed by the state, and an elaborate, largely offshore financial system controlled by powerful officials of the government and ruling party. The formal economic system involves transactions almost exclusively in the nakfa, the non-convertible Eritrean national currency, and suffers from a chronic hard-currency deficit that theoretically makes it extremely difficult for the country to provide financial support to foreign-armed groups.

However, the report indicates that the informal, PFDJ-controlled economy involves a much higher proportion of hard-currency transactions than the formal economy and is managed almost entirely offshore through a labyrinthine multinational network of companies, individuals and bank accounts, many of which do not declare any affiliation to PFDJ or the Eritrean state. Although it is impossible to obtain reliable figures about the size of this unofficial economy, it is apparently more than sufficient to fund external operations such as Al Shabaab.

The most significant source of revenue for PFDJ is the imposition of a two per cent income tax on Eritrean nationals living abroad, who number an estimated 1.2 million, or 25 per cent of the total population, and are concentrated in North America, Europe and the Middle East.

http://www.thelondoneveningpost.com/how-eritrea%E2%80%99s-strongman-uses-kenya-as-a-terror-finance-hub/

[Sept 12, 2011]

Same article also found at

http://somalithinktank.org/he-bad-boy-of-the-horn-of-africa-how-eritreas-strongman-uses-kenya-as-a-terror-finance-hub/

June 10, 2012, 1:34pm   1 note
▸ U.S. offers millions in bounty for top Somali militants, Reuters

Thursday’s announcement will for the first time set specific prices on the heads of al Shabaab leaders, topped by a reward of up to $7 million for information on the whereabouts of Ahmed Abdi aw-Mohamed, the group’s founder and overall commander.

Rewards of up to $5 million are being offered for Ibrahim Haji Jama, another al Shabaab co-founder, and group financier Fuad Mohamed Khalaf, along with military commander Bashir Mohamed Mahamoud and Mukhtar Robow, who often serves as the group’s spokesman.

The U.S. government will pay rewards of up to $3 million for information on the whereabouts of intelligence chief Zakariya Ismail Ahmed Hersi and Abdullahi Yare, another senior figure, Hartung said.



Source: reuters.com

Jun 06, 2012, 7:17pm  1 note      

Re: Reconciliation Potential among Somali Clans [Ahmed M.I. Egal - Somaliland Press] (From Pro-Somaliland Independence camp, but still)

The experience of Somaliland, which pioneered this approach to national reconciliation and attendant re-birth of political consent through an ad-hoc, pragmatic, hit and miss process evidenced by the Burao Conference of 1991 and the Borama Conference in 1993 is very helpful as guide. The situation in Somalia is made more difficult by the fact that the majority clan there (the Hawiye) is fractured and is subject to as much division within it as between the clans. Thus, the reconciliation process must be undertaken on an intra- as well as inter-clan basis. This will require much traditional diplomacy, thoughtful confidence building between the parties and patience. Nevertheless, the conducive public mood in Somalia and the political space afforded by the military demise of the nihilists provides a unique window for such an exercise to bear fruit.

Somaliland could be of great assistance in facilitating and promoting such a genuine process of reconciliation and re-establishing political consent for a new state in Somalia. However, the Western Powers continue to regard formal engagement with Somaliland as an impediment to the effort to stabilise Somalia, rather than as the essential requirement for, and logical consequence of, such an effort that it actually is. The AU, for its part, views Somaliland’s success in nation-building and democratisation as a threat and challenge to the status quo on colonial borders despite the precedents of Eritrea, South Sudan and Western Sahara. Thus, it continues with its ostrich-like policy of ignoring the self evident truth of Somaliland’s nationhood.

Need to check up with previous book I posted (cf. http://akio.tumblr.com/post/23036364682/in-a-nutshell-the-fact-that-the-selection-of )and also need to check on: Burao Conference 1991 and the Borama Conference 1993.

Need to gather ‘reconciliation’ materials re: Somalia. 

Source: somalilandpress.com
June 03, 2012, 12:44am   0 notes

Somali government soldiers patrol the streets in Lafole village, near Afgoye district in Mogadishu, May 27, 2012. REUTERS/Omar Faruk
African Union troops secure Somali aid corridor (Reuters) 

Somali government soldiers patrol the streets in Lafole village, near Afgoye district in Mogadishu, May 27, 2012. REUTERS/Omar Faruk

African Union troops secure Somali aid corridor (Reuters) 

▸ Key military defeats could end al-Shabab control in Somalia - McClatchy Newspapers

Kenya has long indicated that its end objective is to push al-Shabab out of Kismayo, the southern port city that is al-Shabab’s most lucrative and important possession. Military strategists say there’s no way to take the city without first capturing Afmadow, a town of 50,000.

"It’s a commercial hub for almost the entire region," said Abdiwahab Sheikh Abdisamed, a lecturer at the University of Nairobi and a Somali analyst. With it under Kenyan control, al-Shabab’s hold is crumbling, he said.

"Basically, the entire al-Shabab-controlled area is under siege," Abdisamed said. "If you combine all those forces, the days of al-Shabab are numbered."

When the end might arrive, however, is unclear. Multiple sources said al-Shabab had abandoned Afmadow without a fight and had set up a new defensive position on the road halfway between Afmadow and Kismayo at a place called Birta Dheer.

What happens if al-Shabab loses Kismayo is also unclear. Analysts foresee competing interests that include Somalia’s many clans and subclans, the politics of the neighboring countries whose troops are now inside Somalia, and the often self-serving interests of the country’s political elite, now operating out of Mogadishu.

Kenya’s further incursion (as AU troops, fighting alongside with Somali troops *and with US backing, probably) - 

and then how other neighboring countries (such as  Ethiopia) and Somalia’s internal dynamics (clan and regional antipathy) might lead into another complication - 

to see that I have to read/check so much stuff and I don’t have time :|

By so far it’s going fairly smooth. It looks. 

Also - there are already conspiratorial news re: Somalia on Tumblr. 

Be careful. 



Jun 03, 2012, 12:28am  4 notes      

▸ Istanbul conference seeks to help Somalia: The Associated Press:

Kenya’s prime minister, Raila Odinga, said there were reports that militants were fleeing to mountain hideouts in Somalia’s semiautonomous region of Puntland. He also said it was vital for Somalia’s militia groups to be integrated into the country’s fledgling forces so they can “assume control and protection of liberated areas,” and that military action against pirates who prey on international shipping was also key to national security.

As an example, he cited actions this month by European Union naval forces, which used attack helicopters in their first onshore raid on a suspected pirate lair in Somalia. A pirate said that strike destroyed a supply center and set back operations.

The EU is the main donor to the Somali transitional government. It also trains Somali army troops, and is reinforcing the navies of five neighboring countries to enable them to counter piracy themselves. The long coastline of war-ravaged Somalia provides a perfect haven for pirate gangs that target shipping off the East African coast.

Ban also urged Somalia’s leaders to “keep human rights at the center of the political process,” stick to commitments to allot 30 percent of the 225 seats in the new parliament to women, and ensure freedom of expression and the safety of journalists. He cited the shooting death earlier in May of a Somali journalist, the sixth to be slain in the country this year.

Need to make bulletpoint out of this article. Different atmosphere from TEDx and even last London conference. I think. But that maybe just UN being out of touch etc - . But have to check.



Jun 02, 2012, 8:34am  1 note      

Horn of Africa and Islam - “The history of Islam in the Horn of Africa is almost as old as the faith itself.”

The history of Islam in the Horn of Africa is almost as old as the faith itself. Through extensive trade and social interactions with their converted Muslim trading partners on the other side of the Red Sea, in the Arabian peninsula, merchants and sailors in the Horn region gradually came under the influence of the new religion.

Early Islamic disciples fled to the port city of Zeila in modern-day northern Somalia to seek protection from the Quraysh at the court of the Aksumite Emperor in present-day Somalia. Some of the Muslims that were granted protection are said to have then settled in several parts of the Horn region to promote the religion. The victory of the Muslims over the Quraysh in the 7th century had a significant impact on local merchants and sailors, as their trading partners in Arabia had by then all adopted Islam, and the major trading routes in the Mediterranean and the Red Sea came under the sway of the Muslim Caliphs. Instability in the Arabian peninsula saw further migrations of early Muslim families to the Somali seaboard. These clans came to serve as catalysts, forwarding the faith to large parts of the Horn region.

Above from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Islam#Horn_of_Africa

Then slightly different but also interesting account: 

The history of commercial and intellectual contact between the inhabitants of the Arabian and Somali coasts may help explain the Somalia’s connection with the Prophet Muhammad. Early in the Prophet’s ministry, a band of persecuted Muslims had, with the Prophet’s encouragement, fled across the Red Sea into the Horn of Africa. There the Muslim’s were afforded protection by the Ethiopian negus, or king. Thus, Islam may have been introduced into the Horn of Africa well before the faith took root in its Arabian native soil. The large-scale conversion of the Somalis had to await the arrival in the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries of Muslim patriarchs, in particular, the renowned Shaykh Daarood Jabarti and Shaykh Isahaaq, or Isaaq. Daarood married Doombira Dir, the daughter of a local patriarch. Their issue gave rise to the confederacy that forms the largest clan-family (see Glossary) in Somalia, the Daarood. For his part, Shaykh Isaaq founded the numerous Isaaq clan-family in northern Somalia. Along with the clan (see Glossary) system of lineages (see Glossary), the Arabian shaykhs probably introduced into Somalia the patriarchal ethos and patrilineal genealogy typical of Indo-Europeans, and gradually replaced the indigenous Somali social organization, which, like that of many other African societies, may have been matrilineal (see The Segmentary Social Order , ch. 2).

Islam’s penetration of the Somali coast, along with the immigration of Arabian elements, inspired a second great population movement reversing the flow of migration from northward to southward. This massive movement, which ultimately took the Somalis to the banks of the Tana River and to the fertile plains of Harear, in Ethiopia, commenced in the thirteenth century and continued to the nineteenth century. At that point, European interlopers appeared on the East African scene, ending Somali migration onto the East African plateau.

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+so0014)

Just came across.

This is for TimirSho.

May 27, 2012, 6:18pm   6 notes